Human Factors in Healthcare by Dr. Ruchi Dass, @drruchibhatt



Stare in the middle of the image below..as you move your eyes around you will see black dots flashing. now you know that there is no flashing possible here but it tricks your brain.
Human eyes could be easier to trick than you might think.A Japanese professor, Kokichi Sugihara, created sculptures that trick the mind to see the impossible.

He was the winner of the Best Illusion of the Year Contest in 2010 and 2nd place in 2016.
Check out some of Sugihara's best brain-bending illusions:
Like when that thing goes there, isn't it supposed to go over there and not over there? Shouldn't the little balls be rolling to the right instead of the left? How did that thing do the thing? Huh?!



Let us talk about Healthcare now. Illusions occur when brain tries to make sense out of conflicting information based on his/her experience. Many of you would have heard about Conformational bias.
Conformational Bias 
Human sight is falliable and images can easily be misread leading to errors in processing information. For practising Physicians as well, we have seen such conformational bias. When a new piece of information is presented which is not in tandem and consistent with someone's current mental model, there are chances that it will be disregarded. Let us think of a mental model including the three units in Patient management-
Experience-- Expectation---Briefing
My cousin got admitted in the Emergency department Saturday night and the duty doctor made a presumptive diagnosis. The next day this diagnosis was handed over to the head of the department as a part of patient's history. The Physician here adopted the briefing, experience and expectation of the Emergency department Physician to his mental model and prescribed medication- possibly got blinded to realise a differing picture.
That is why in Psychology of Healthcare, a shared mental model design is necessary. There are a lot of factors that can influence situation awareness. Mental model sharing includes:
1. members of the team holding the least possible/least consistent mental model as their approach to avoid underestimation, conditioned thinking and oversight.
2. Effective communication between all team members
3. active monitoring of team member's actions, understanding, data processed/evidence available through the senses -also for patient, equipment, summary, documentation and instruments.
Schizophrenia 
The important principle to understand is that our perceptions are not the same thing as stimuli that are picked up by our sensory receptors. Think of hallucinations in individuals experiencing mental illness like schizophrenia.
Hallucinations are involuntary and can occur in the absence of an external stimuli. That means a person sees or hear something that is not there. In the neuroimaging studies, scientists have gathered information around normal and abnormal conciousness and unconcious brains states.
Brain can pretty much create its own realities and illusions. That means brain can respond differently to external and internal stimulus.
In the 19th century, Dr. E. Babbit, M.D. proved that colored light was capable of healing through the effect on the autonomic nerve fibers in the skin and via the nerves from the eye to the brain. Dr. Spitler proved in the 1930’s that psychiatric illnesses could be cured or improved by using a visual colored light source. It is now known that there are at least four effects from light. These are: 
1. The optic nerve to the pituitary gland, temporal lobe, and occipital lobe of the brain. This information affects the conscious part of the brain without interpretation. 
2. A second nerve bundle from the retina to the hypothalamus, which is a major control area for both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves. Dr. Fritz Hollwich, M.D. has shown that color affects neurotransmitter and hormone levels in the brain and spinal cord, which in turn affect the rest of metabolism and biochemistry. 
3. This path goes from the retina to the midbrain, and then to the superior cervical ganglion to the brainstem and then to the pineal gland. This area controls, among other things, our circadian (sleep/wake) cycle. 
4. The last is a direct effect of the light upon particles that travel in the lymph, blood, and nerves. Researchers at the University of Vienna found that albumin is one of the particles able to be charged by light. It is then able to deliver this charge to tissues at distant locations (tissues) in the body. 
Sources and recommended reads
Using Magic to Throw Light on Tricky Healthcare ;Systems: Patient Safety Problem Solving ;Linda C. Williams 

User-Driven Healthcare: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications:

https://play.google.com/store/books/details/Management_Association_Information_Resources_User?id=mcSeBQAAQBAJ

Communication Skills for the Health Care Professional: Concepts, Practice, and Evidence: 

https://books.google.co.in/books/about/Communication_Skills_for_the_Health_Care.html?id=oWluAAAAQBAJ

The Article was first published on Dr. Ruchi's LinkedIn Pulse Blog, here. The article is republished here with the Author's permission.
Author
Article By: Dr. Ruchi Dass
Digital Health Influencer & Health Innovator (HIT, Big Data, IoT, Analytics and Cloud)| TED speaker | Investor and Mentor
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The Formula of Driver and Demand- Indian Startups story via @drruchibhatt


Author: Dr. Ruchi Dass
Health Innovator (HIT, BigData, IoT, Analytics and Cloud) | TED Speaker | Investor and Mentor
15.Feb.2016, India

The healthcare industry is currently experiencing change at an unprecedented rate. Change is not only occurring in the technology used in diagnostics and care delivery, but this change is so fundamental that it could, and likely will, fundamentally alter the business model of the industry.
Today we have fitness bands, healthcare apps, appointment schedulers, health chats and several such means to access healthcare but one thing that all of this does not necessarily correlate with high quality of care or better outcomes.
We need to understand that “Not even a Ferrari will get us to our destination without a driver.”
Formula of Driver:
Driver = (Need + Incentive) where;
Incentive = (Value + Reward)
Need = (Gap + Demand)
To define the best drivers, we need to first address the need. Need might not make economic or business sense but it is the best opportunity to leave an impact. No one remembers how much business a “Mughal-e-Azam” or “Usual suspects” did but everyone remembers that these were great movies with splendid performances.
In India, we have several such needs today. A survey conducted by HCG on several pressing issues in the field of health and safety highlighted the following:
  1. Women safety
  2. Elderly concierge services
  3. Child safety
  4. Personalized nutrition
  5. Health Insurance for OPD services
  6. Cancer support/ early detection
  7. Infertility
  8. Fitness (scientifically monitored) and performance 

This list is not exhaustive. I don't need to look at statistics to confront the horrid truth. News stories of women from all over India being raped, beaten, killed are flashed across us day after day – and we all are aware of it. The fatal Nirbhaya gang-rape saw an outpouring on the streets of Delhi – protests decrying the fragile status of women in India. Candle light marches, editorials examining the patriarchal and sexist traditions of our country, an awakening on social media – even conversations on streets revolve around the night they cannot forget: the night that took Nirbhaya. We need to do something about women safety. Devices, trackers, processes, helplines- whatever little or more we can do. 
 If you are an innovator in this area, please get in touch with me.
For elderly even small accidents can be deadly. While simple falls, such as slipping while walking off a curb, may seem relatively harmless, they can actually lead to severe injury and death in elderly individuals, according to a new study published in The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care. As the population continues to age, it is important for physicians and caregivers to be aware of and prepared to deal with this issue, which could significantly impact the overall health and wellbeing of older adults. 
In addition to it, low blood pressure, low blood sugar, heart attack and other things can be very worrisome and need constant monitoring. Innovators call to action here is to come out create and raise awareness about such bracelets, devices and jewelry that can be adorned for a purpose.
Without calorie count possible, limited heart rate tracking and availability of other vitals; performance management and fitness efforts are less effective. Measuring your heart rate using a heart rate monitor is a good way to gauge the effectiveness of your workout because as you strengthen your body through exercise, you also strengthen your heart.
Measuring the rate of your heart during exercise can help you determine when you're pushing your body too hard or need to push it harder to achieve the level of fitness you are seeking. I love the work Hexoskin and Kenzen are doing. I am looking for something more affordable and focused for Indian market.
Health tech is blazing hot right now and there's no shortage of companies working on innovative products designed to change the face of healthcare as we know it. That's a good thing, considering Indians are as unfit as ever and bureaucracy continues to muck things up for physicians and patients alike. As technology evolves, it could upend some of these problems. One thing that's certain: Consumer-driven healthcare is coming. And these companies are helping make it happen.
All the best !



Author
Article By: Dr. Ruchi Dass
Digital Health Influencer & Health Innovator (HIT, Big Data, IoT, Analytics and Cloud)| TED speaker | Investor and Mentor
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