Glossary of Terms for Healthcare Data Analytics



BALANCED SCORECARD:
A framework developed by Robert Kaplan and David Norton that suggests four perspectives of performance measurement to provide a comprehensive view of an organisation. These are service user perspective, internal management perspective, continuous improvement perspective and financial perspective.

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Glossary of Healthcare & HealthIT Terms and Acronyms


ACO (Accountable Care Organization) MEDICARE’s outcomes-based contracting approach

Activity Diagram A UML Diagram that shows a workflow process, particularly focused on communication and the actors involved in that communication. Introduced as part of the HDF as part of the requirements analysis for HL7 standrads.

ANSI American National Standards Institute. Founded in 1918, ANSI itself does not develop standards. ANSI’s roles include serving as the coordinator for U.S. voluntary standards efforts, acting as the approval body to recognize documents developed by other national organizations as American National Standards, acting as the U.S. representative in international and regional standards efforts, and serving as a clearinghouse for national and international standards development information.

Attribute Type The last part of an attribute name (suffix). Attribute type suffixes are rough classifiers for the meaning of the attribute. See also Data Type for contrast.

Authenticated Document A status in which a document or entry has been signed manually or electronically by one or more individuals who attest to its accuracy. No explicit determination is made that the assigned individual has performed the authentication. While the standard allows multiple instances of authentication, it would be typical to have a single instance of authentication, usually by the assigned individual.

Auxiliary Application An auxiliary application neither exerts control over, nor requests changes to a schedule. It is only concerned with gathering information about a particular schedule. It can be considered an “interested third- party,” in that it is interested in any changes to a particular schedule, but has no interest in changing it or controlling it in any way. It may gather information passively or actively. An auxiliary application passively collects information by receiving unsolicited updates from a filler application.

Arden Syntax an approach to specifying medical knowledge and clinical decision support rules in a form that is independent of any EHR and thus sharable across hospitals

ARRA (American Recovery and Reconstruction Act) the Obama administration’s 2009 economic stimulus bill

Blue Button an ASCII text based standard for heath information sharing first introduced by the Veteran’s Administration to facilitate access to records stored in VistA by their patients. The newer Blue Button + format provides both human and machine readable formats.

CCD (Continuity of Care Document) an XML-based patient summary based on the CDA architecture

CCOW (Clinical Context Object Workshop) an HL7 standard for synchronizing and coordinating applications to automatically follow the patient, user (and other) contexts to allow the clinical user's experience to resemble interacting with a single system, when they are using multiple, independent applications from many different systems

CCR (Continuity of Care Record) an XML-based patient summary format that preceded CDA

CCDA (Consolidated Clinical Document Architecture) the second revision of HL7’s CDA architecture that attempts to introduce more standard templates to facilitate information sharing (a mandate of Meaningful Use 2)

CDA (Clinical Document Architecture) an XML-based markup standard intended to specify the encoding, structure and semantics of clinical documents

CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) the federal agency focused on disease in the community.

CA (Certificate Authority) an entity that digitally signs certificate requests and issues X.509 digital certificates that link a public key to attributes of its owner

CIMI (Clinical Information Modeling Initiative) an independent collaboration of major health providers improve the interoperability of healthcare information systems through shared and implementable clinical information models

CMS (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services) the component of the Department of Health and Human Services that administers the Medicare and Medicaid programs

CommonWell Alliance a group of major health IT companies that is working to achieve interoperability among their respective software products and services

Complete EHR an EHR software product that, by itself, is capable of meeting the requirements of certification and Meaningful Use

CONNECT ONC supported open source software for managing the centralized model of health information exchange

CPT (Current Procedural Terminology) the American Medical Association’s standard for coding medical procedures

De-identified Patient Health Information PHI from which all data elements that could allow the data to be traced back to the patient have been removed

DIRECT a set of ONC supported standards for secure exchange of health information using email

DNS (Domain Name System) the naming system for computers, services, or any resource connected to the Internet (or a private network). Among other things, it translates domain names (e.g. eBay.com) to the numerical IP addresses needed to locate Internet connected resources.

EDI/X12 a format for electronic messaging that utilizes cryptic but compact notation primarily to support computer-to-computer commercial information exchange

eHealth Exchange a set of standards, services and policies that enable secure nationwide, Internet-based health information exchange using CONNECT or one of the commercial HIE products that support eHealth Exchange

EHR (Electronic Health Record) a stakeholder wide electronic record of a patient’s complete health situation

EHR Certification a set of technical requirements developed by ONC that, if met, quality an EHR to be used by an Eligible Professional to achieve Meaningful Use

Eligible Professionals (Medicaid) health providers who are eligible for Medicaid Meaningful Use payments: doctors of medicine, osteopathy, dental surgery, dental medicine, nurse practitioners, nurse certified nurse-midwifes, and physician assistants who working in a Federally Qualified Health Center or Rural Health Clinic that is led by a physician assistant

Eligible Professionals (Medicare) health providers who are eligible for Medicare Meaningful Use payments: doctors of medicine, osteopathy, dental surgery, dental medicine, podiatry, optometry and chiropractic

EMPI an enterprise master patient index

EMR (Electronic Medical Record) an electronic record used by a licensed professional care provider

GELLO a programming language intended for use as a standard query and expression language for clinical decision support. Now compatible with the HL7 version 3.0 Reference Information Model (RIM).

HDF (HL7 Development Framework) the framework used by HL7 to produce specifications for data, messaging process and other standards

Health System a network of providers that are affiliated for the more integrated delivery of care

Healtheway an ONC supported public-private partnership to promote nationwide health information exchange via the eHealth Exchange

HIE (Health Information Exchange) the sharing of digital health information by the various stakeholders involved, including the patient

HIMSS (Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society) describes itself as a “a global, cause-based, not-for-profit organization focused on better health through information technology (IT)”

HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996) legislation intended to secure health insurance for employees changing jobs and simplify administration with electronic transactions. It also defines the rules concerning patient privacy and security for PHI

HISP (Health ISP) a component of Direct that provides a provider directory, secure email addresses and public-key infrastructure (PKI)

HIT (Health Information Technology) the set of tools needed to facilitate electronic documentation and management of healthcare delivery

HITSP (Healthcare Information Technology Standards Panel) a public/private partnership to promote interoperability through standards

HL7 (Health Level 7) a not-for-profit global organization to establish standards for interoperability

HMO (Health Maintenance Organization) an organization that provides managed healthcare on a prepaid basis. Employers with 25 or more employees must offer federally certified HMO options if they offer traditional healthcare options

hQuery an ONC funded, open source effort to develop a generalized set of distributed queries across diverse EHRs for purposes such as clinical research

HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) a query-response protocol used to transfer information between web browsers and connected servers. HTTPS is the secure version.

ICD (International Classification of Disease) the World Health Organization’s almost universally used standard codes for diagnoses. The current version is ICD-10 and it was adopted in the US on October 1, 2015 -- well after most other advanced countries had moved to it.

IHTSDO (International Health Terminology Standard Development Organisation) the multinational organization that maintains SNOMED

IHIP Integrated Health Information Platform. An Integrated Health Information Platform (IHIP) is being setup by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW). The primary objective of IHIP is to enable the creation of standards compliant Electronic Health Records (EHRs) of the citizens on a pan-India basis along with the integration and interoperability of the EHRs through a comprehensive Health Information Exchange (HIE) as part of this centralized accessible platform.

IP Address a 32 bit (the standard is changing to 128 bit to accommodate Internet growth) number assigned to each device in an Internet Protocol network and that indicates where it is in that network.

I2b2 (Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside) a scalable query framework for exploration of clinical and genomic data for research to design targeted therapies for individual patients with diseases having genetic origins

Interoperability the ability of diverse information systems to seamlessly share data and coordinate on tasks involving multiple systems.

LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) is a protocol for accessing (including searching) and maintaining distributed directory information services (such as an email directory) over an IP network.

LOINC (Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes) the Regenstrief Institute’s standard for laboratory and clinical observations

Meaningful Use a set of usage requirements defined in three stages by ONC under which eligible professionals are paid for adopting a certified EHR

MedDRA (Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities) the International Conference on Harmonisation’s classification of adverse event information associated with the use of biopharmaceuticals and other medical products

Medicaid the joint federal/state program to provide healthcare services to poor and some disabled US citizens

Medicare the federally operated program to provide healthcare services to US citizens over the age of 65

MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) the Internet standard for the format of email attachments used in Direct. S/MIME is the secure version.

MLM (Medical Logic Module) the basic unit in the Arden Syntax that contains sufficient medical knowledge and rules to make one clinical decision.

Modular EHR a software component that delivers at least one of the key services required of a Certified EHR

Moodle (Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment) is one of the most popular open source Course Management Systems (CMS). It is written in PHP programming language and distributed under the GNU General Public License. Moodle was created by Martin Dougiama to help educators to create online courses with a focus on interaction and collaborative construction of content, and it is in continual evolution.

MPI (Master Patient Index) software to provide correct matching of patients across multiple software systems, typically within a health enterprise

MUMPS (Massachusetts General Utility Multi-Programming System) an integrated programming language and file management system designed in the late 1960’s for medical data processing that is the basis for some of the most widely installed enterprise health information systems

NDC (National Drug Codes) the Food and Drug Administration’s numbering system for all medications commercially available in the US

ONC (Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology) the agency created in 2004 within the Department of Health and Human Services to promote the deployment of HIT in the US

Outcomes-based Contract an approach to pay for healthcare that rewards physician performance against certain defined quality metrics when combined with a lower than predicted cost of care

P4P (Pay for Performance) an approach to pay for healthcare that rewards physician performance against certain defined quality metrics

PCMH (Patient-Centered Medical Home) a team based healthcare delivery model often particularly focused on the management of chronic disease

PCP (Primary Care Physician) the generalist in a patient’s care team who assumes overall responsibility for all their health issues and often the gatekeeper who must generate referrals to specialists

PHI (Protected Health Information) any health or health related information that can be related back to a specific patient. PHI is subject to HIPAA regulations.

PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) a widely used system for protection of documents, messages and other data that rests on a pair of public and private keys to allow for a variety of use cases

Private Key the protected (known only to its owner) part of the special pair of numbers used to encrypt documents using PKI

Provider health professionals including physicians, nurse practitioners, physicians’ assistants that are engaged in direct patient care

Public Key the public part of the special pair of numbers used to encrypt documents using PKI

RA (Registration Authority) an entity that collects information for the purpose of verifying the identity of an individual or organization and produces a certificate request

Synthetic Health Data facsimile clinical data created by a software system to realistically resemble actual patient data

Templates (CDA) the reusable basic XML-based building blocks of a CDA document that can represent the entire document, its sections or the data entries within a section

Read Codes a hierarchical clinical terminology system used in General Practice in the United Kingdom

Resource Description Framework (RDF) a method for describing or modeling of information on the web using subject-predicate-object expressions (triples) in the form of subject-predicate-object expressions that could be used to represent health ontologies (SNOMED, ICD-1)

RIM (Reference Information Model) a pictorial representation of the HL7 clinical data (domains) that illustrates the life cycle of an HL7 message or groups of related messages

Semantic web the proposed next generation of web in which technologies like RDF would create a "web of data" in which browsers (and other tools) could “understand” the content of web pages

SMTP (Simplified Mail Transport Protocol) the Internet standard for email used by Direct. The secure version is S/SMTP

SNOMED (Standard Nomenclature of Medicine) a comprehensive, hierarchical healthcare terminology system.

SNOMED CT (Standard Nomenclature of Medicine) SNOMED subset for the electronic health record

ToC (Transition of Care Initiative) the effort to develop a standard electronic clinical summary for transitions of care from one venue to another

TPO HIPAA exception for providers, insurance companies and other health-care entities to exchange information necessary for Treatment, Payment or Operations of healthcare businesses

VDT (View, Download, Transmit) a requirement of Meaningful Use Stage 2 that patients view, download or transmit their health information

VistA (Veterans Health Information Systems and Technology Architecture) the Veteran’s Administration’s system wide, MUMPS based health information infrastructure

X.509 digital certificate the technical name for an electronic document issued by a CA that uses a digital signature to bind a public key with an identity based on information from an RA

XDR (External Data Representation) an operating system and transport method agnostic mechanism for exchanging data that is encoded/decoded into/from the XDR format.

XDM (IHE Cross Enterprise Document Media Interchange) a standard mechanism for including both documents and meta-data in zip format using agreed upon conventions for directory structure and location of files.

XDS (Cross-Enterprise Document Sharing) the use of federated document repositories and a document registry to create a longitudinal record of information about a patient

XML (Xtensible Markup Language) a widely used standard for machine and human readable electronic documents and the language used to define CDA templates

XMPI a cross organizational master patient index capable of dealing with many unaffiliated hospitals and health systems



References


[1]: Glossary of Terms on HL7: 
https://www.hl7.org/documentcenter/public/calendarofevents/FirstTime/Glossary%20of%20terms.pdf

[2]: HEALTH INFORMATICS ON FHIR: https://www.coursera.org/learn/fhir

[3]: pwc AI: https://www.pwc.com/ai





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Glossary of Terms & Acronyms for Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning


AI & Machine Learning Terms



Artificial intelligence
The development of computers capable of tasks that typically require human intelligence. A machine’s ability to make decisions and perform tasks that simulate human intelligence and behavior.

Machine learning
Using example data or experience to refine how computers make predictions or perform a task. A facet of AI that focuses on algorithms, allowing machines to learn without being programmed and change when exposed to new data. 

Deep learning
A machine learning technique in which data is filtered through self-adjusting networks of math loosely inspired by neurons in the brain. The ability for machines to autonomously mimic human thought patterns through artificial neural networks composed of cascading layers of information.

Supervised learning
Showing software labeled example data, such as photographs, to teach a computer what to do. A type of machine learning in which output datasets train the machine to generate the desired algorithms, like a teacher supervising a student; more common than unsupervised learning.

Unsupervised learning
Learning without annotated examples, just from experience of data or the world—trivial for humans but not generally practical for machines. Yet. A type of machine learning algorithm used to draw inferences from datasets consisting of input data without labeled responses. The most common unsupervised learning method is cluster analysis.

Reinforcement learning
Software that experiments with different actions to figure out how to maximize a virtual reward, such as scoring points in a game.

Artificial general intelligence
As yet nonexistent software that displays a humanlike ability to adapt to different environments and tasks, and transfer knowledge between them.

Large-scale Machine Learning Design of learning algorithms, as well as scaling existing algorithms, to work with extremely large data sets.

Deep Learning Model composed of inputs such as image or audio and several hidden layers of sub-models that serve as input for the next layer and ultimately an output or activation function.

Natural Language Processing (NLP) Algorithms that process human language input and convert it into understandable representations. The ability for a program to recognize human communication as it is meant to be understood. 

Collaborative Systems Models and algorithms to help develop autonomous systems that can work collaboratively with other systems and with humans.

Computer Vision (Image Analytics) The process of pulling relevant information from an image or sets of images for advanced classification and analysis.

Algorithmic Game Theory and Computational Social Choice Systems that address the economic and social computing dimensions of AI, such as how systems can handle potentially misaligned incentives, including self-interested human participants or firms and the automated AI-based agents representing them.

Soft Robotics (Robotic Process Automation - RPA) Automation of repetitive tasks and common processes such as IT, customer servicing and sales without the need to transform existing IT system maps.

Algorithms: A set of rules or instructions given to an AI, neural network, or other machines to help it learn on its own; classification, clustering, recommendation, and regression are four of the most popular types.

Artificial neural network (ANN): A learning model created to act like a human brain that solves tasks that are too difficult for traditional computer systems to solve.

Autonomic computing: A system's capacity for adaptive self-management of its own resources for high-level computing functions without user input.

Chatbots: A chat robot (chatbot for short) that is designed to simulate a conversation with human users by communicating through text chats, voice commands, or both. They are a commonly used interface for computer programs that include AI capabilities.

Classification: Classification algorithms let machines assign a category to a data point based on training data.

Cluster analysis: A type of unsupervised learning used for exploratory data analysis to find hidden patterns or grouping in data; clusters are modeled with a measure of similarity defined by metrics such as Euclidean or probabilistic distance.

Clustering: Clustering algorithms let machines group data points or items into groups with similar characteristics.

Cognitive computing: A computerized model that mimics the way the human brain thinks. It involves self-learning through the use of data mining, natural language processing, and pattern recognition.

Convolutional neural network (CNN): A type of neural networks that identifies and makes sense of images.

Data mining: The examination of data sets to discover and mine patterns from that data that can be of further use.

Data science: An interdisciplinary field that combines scientific methods, systems, and processes from statistics, information science, and computer science to provide insight into phenomenon via either structured or unstructured data.

Decision tree: A tree and branch-based model used to map decisions and their possible consequences, similar to a flow chart.

Fluent: A type of condition that can change over time.

Game AI: A form of AI specific to gaming that uses an algorithm to replace randomness. It is a computational behavior used in non-player characters to generate human-like intelligence and reaction-based actions taken by the player.

Genetic algorithm: An evolutionary algorithm based on principles of genetics and natural selection that is used to find optimal or near-optimal solutions to difficult problems that would otherwise take decades to solve.

Heuristic search techniques: Support that narrows down the search for optimal solutions for a problem by eliminating options that are incorrect.

Knowledge engineering: Focuses on building knowledge-based systems, including all of the scientific, technical, and social aspects of it.

Logic programming: A type of programming paradigm in which computation is carried out based on the knowledge repository of facts and rules; LISP and Prolog are two logic programming languages used for AI programming.

Machine intelligence: An umbrella term that encompasses machine learning, deep learning, and classical learning algorithms.

Machine perception: The ability for a system to receive and interpret data from the outside world similarly to how humans use our senses. This is typically done with attached hardware, though software is also usable.

Recurrent neural network (RNN): A type of neural network that makes sense of sequential information and recognizes patterns, and creates outputs based on those calculations.

Swarm behavior: From the perspective of the mathematical modeler, it is an emergent behavior arising from simple rules that are followed by individuals and does not involve any central coordination.

References


[1]: pwc AI: https://www.pwc.com/ai

[2]: AI: The Complete Guide: 
https://www.wired.com/story/guide-artificial-intelligence/
[3]: https://dzone.com/articles/ai-glossary








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